Introduction to Genetics

 Genetics : What is Genetics ?            Gеnеtісѕ іѕ thе ѕtudу оf how genes brіng about сhаrасtеrіѕtісѕ, оr trаіtѕ, іn lіvіng thіngѕ and hоw thоѕе сhаrасtеrіѕtісѕ are іnhеrіtеd. Gеnеѕ are роrtіоnѕ оf DNA mоlесulеѕ that determine сhаrасtеrіѕtісѕ of living things. Thrоugh thе рrосеѕѕеѕ of meiosis and rерrоduсtіоn, genes are trаnѕmіttеd frоm one gеnеrаtіоn tо thе next.           Thе

Recombinant DNA technology

What is recombinant DNA technology ? Rесоmbіnаnt DNA tесhnоlоgу is a tесhnоlоgу that allows DNA tо be produced vіа artificial means. Thе рrосеdurе hаѕ bееn uѕеd to change DNA in lіvіng оrgаnіѕmѕ аnd may have even mоrе рrасtісаl uses іn the future. It іѕ аn area оf mеdісаl ѕсіеnсе thаt іѕ just beginning tо bе rеѕеаrсhеd іn a concerted еffоrt.   Recombinant DNA technology emerged as a response to the

DNA replication

What is DNA?           DNA stands for Deoxyriobo-Nucleic-Acid, a complex molecule that contains each and every information necessary to build and maintain organisms. All living beings have DNA within their cells. More interestingly, nearly every cell in a multi-cellular living organism possesses the full set of DNA required for that organism. DNA does a lot more than only specifying the structure and function of living things - it also serves as the primary unit of heredity in all

Transcription and Translation in Eukaryotes

What are eukaryotes? These are organisms whose cell structure such as organelles is enclosed within the membrane. The nucleus is the defining cell structure that sets eukaryotic cells apart from the prokaryotic cells. The presence of the nucleus gives these organisms their names. Being more complex than Prokaryotes, they make up all fungi, plant, animals such as amoeba. Eukaryotic cells are known for their strong cytoskeleton and their internal membranes. The cytoskeleton is made of proteins

Transcription and Translation in Prokaryotes

Introduction Prokaryotes are singled celled organisms and may be referred to as the earliest form of the most primitive life on earth. They include bacterial, prokaryotes and Achaeans. They are able to survive in a variety of environments including extreme habitats like swamps, hot springs, wet lands and the guts of animals. Prokaryotic cells are less complex when compared to eukaryotic cells. They lack a true nucleus and no DNA molecules. The following can be found in the bacterial cell: Capsule,

Genetic material – DNA and RNA

     Nucleic acids contains information regarding the amino acid sequence that results in protein of functional importance. DNA - Deoxy ribo Nucleic Acid act as cellular library that contains necessary information for building cells and tissues of an organism. RNA – Ribo Nucleic  Acid has pivotal role in protein synthesis. Structure of DNA and RNA composed of multiple chemical units(polymer) of single chemical units(monomers) called Nucleotides. Length: DNA : composed of several


What is Chromosome? Chromosomes are thread like structures which are located inside nucleus of all plant and animal cells. Each chromosome comprises of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA are passed from parents to offspring. DNA contains those specific instructions that build each type of living creatures unique among themselves. Chromosomes are a key part of the important process that ensures if DNA is accurately copied and distributed in vast majority of cell


Meiotic cell division occurs in reproductive cells of plants and animals.Meiotic cell division is also known as "Reduction division" where diploid number of chromosomes are reduced to haploid(number of chromosomes reduced to half).Meiosis consists of two complete division. Meiosis I or heterotypic division(no.of.chromosomes reduced to half) Meiosis II or homotypic division (mitotic or equational) During sexual reproduction two gametes(male and female) each having same set of chromosomes(n)


Mitotic cell division is first described by W.flemming in 1882(in plant cell by Strasburger).Karyokinesis(DNA duplication followed by nuclear division) followed by cytokinesis(cytoplasm of single eukaryotic cell is divided to form daughter nuclei). Amitosis: This type cell division is usually occurs in prokaryote. Its a simple type of cell division.All the cell contents including nucleus divide into two equal halves by means of inwardly growing constriction in the middle of the cell. In

Cell division

Cell division is a special biological process by which a cell gets divided into two or more new cells. During cell division, a cell’s nucleus splits up and the DNA is replicated. There are broadly two types of cell division : mitosis and meiosis. Most of the time when we refer to “cell division”, we mean mitosis, a process of making new body cells. Where meiosis is the separate type of cell division that only creates eggs and sperm cells. Because this mitosis cell division is so critical,