Cell division

  • Cell division is a special biological process by which a cell gets divided into two or more new cells. During cell division, a cell’s nucleus splits up and the DNA is replicated. There are broadly two types of cell division : mitosis and meiosis.

    Most of the time when we refer to “cell division”, we mean mitosis, a process of making new body cells. Where meiosis is the separate type of cell division that only creates eggs and sperm cells. Because this mitosis cell division is so critical, the corresponding steps of mitosis are very carefully controlled by a number of genes. When the mitosis is not regulated correctly, serious health problems such as cancer can result.

    The other type of cell division, named meiosis, ensures that chromosomes in human beings matches exactly in each generation. It is an interesting, calculative, two-step process that reduces the number of chromosomes by half, i.e. from 46 to 23 – to form egg and sperm cells. When these egg and sperm cell unites at conception, each one of these contributes 23 chromosomes, therefore the resulting embryo will contain usual 46 chromosomes. Meiosis is also known for allowing genetic variation through the process of DNA shuffling while the division of cell.

    mitosis meiosis

  • Mitosis is a fundamental process of life. During mitosis, a cell duplicates (makes exact copy) all of its contents, including its chromosomes, and then splits to form two identical daughter cells

    Multicellular organisms vary largely in size and complexity. You may not think that you have very much common with an oak tree or ant. Actually, you do share many things with these living organisms. One of the best characteristics is that both of you and they are made up of trillions of cells. But like most organisms, both you and they started out as a single cell.

    In multicellular organisms, cell division is mainly essential for three major fucntions :

    • Growth
    • Development
    • Repair

    GROWTH

    Generally, any large organism does not have larger cells than that of small organism, but it simply has many more cells in number than smaller organism. Individual cell grows, but there are certain limits to the maximum size cells can reach. Cells need a high ratio of surface area to volume in order to operate properly. As a cell grows, this ratio decreases.

    DEVELOPMENT

    Cell division alone does not allows any organism to develop. These cells may take on structures and shapes that help them to carry out their functions properly. Some cells might become layered skin cells, while other becomes thin, long nerve cells. These cells still have the same set of genetic material as all other cells have in the organisms body, but as the organism develops, they gets specialized.

    REPAIR

    The body repairs the injuries by means of cell division. For example, when your skin is cut, skin cells on either side of the cut starts making new cells to heal the wound

    • Cell division or cell cycle is an important step of evolution, since each and every organisms in earth is evolved from single cell organisms (eg: Amoeba) to multicellular oragnisms (eg: Human) through cell-division. It is important to note that abnormal cells division results in“Cancer”.
    •    Cell division also important for growth of an organism(single cell (zygote) is multiplied to form a complete organism)
    •    Cell cycle consist of two phases synthetic and mitotic phase.

    synthetic phase : DNA is duplicated

    mitotic phase : Duplicated copies of DNA is distributed to the daughter cells

    Usually plant and animal cell takes 10 to 20 hours to divide result is double in number.

    Cell division is a complex process by which single cellular material is equally divided to its daughter cells.Its of three types.,

    1. Mitotic cell division.
    2. Meiotic cell division.

    We can discuss these types separately in upcoming posts

     

By | 2015-08-23T15:38:10+00:00 May 29th, 2013|Cell Biology, Cell cycle|0 Comments

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