Difference between plant cell and animal cell

//Difference between plant cell and animal cell

Key Difference : Animal cells doesn’t contains rigid cell walls and the chloroplasts, and also they have smaller vacuoles. While plant cells have a rigid cell wall, have chloroplasts and have a much larger central vacuole.

Cells are smallest unit of life and microscopic by nature, which means we cannot see them with our naked eye. These cells were discovered in 1665 by the Robert Hooke and were named after the small “cells” (or rooms) in a monastery. There are basically two types of cells, eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. The prokaryotic cells are self-sufficient in nature, like bacteria and archaea. While the cells of all of the multi-cellular beings are known as eukaryotic cells, but they have separate structures.

The main differences between a plant and an animal cell is that plant cells contain a rigid cell wall, which the animal cells lacks. This cell wall is made up of cellulose and gives the plant cells rigidity in a proper fixed, rectangular shape. Animal cell lacks this, that why they tend to have irregular and round shaped cells. Animal cells tends to vary largely in their appearance. In plant cell, their rigid cell wall allows high pressure to build inside of them without bursting the cell. This is the reason, plant cells are able to accept huge amount of liquids through osmosis without bursting. Contrary to this, animal cells have only thin membrane restricting access to the cell, so they tends to burst if absorbs too much extra water.

Both of them, animal cells and plant cells have a well-defined nucleus, which contains chromosomes. The nucleus is surrounded and protected by cytoplasm, a gel-like watery liquid, that holds all of the organelles in their place. This cytoplasm in turn is held in by the outer cell membrane.

Here we are listing all the differences between plant cell and animal cells for quick view :

PLANT CELLANIMAL CELL
A plant cell is usually larger in sizeAn animal cell is comparatively smaller in size
It is enclosed by rigid cellulose cell wall in addition to the plasma membraneAnimal cell is enclosed by a thin, flexible plasma membrane only
Plant cell cannot change its shapeAn animal cell can often change its shape
Plastids are present here. Plant cells exposed to sunlight contain chloroplastPlastids are absent in animal cells
A fully mature plant cell contains a large central vacuoleAn animal cell often possesses many small vacuoles
In plant cell, nucleus lies on one side in the peripheral cytoplasmIn animal cell nucleus usually lies in the center
Here centrioles are usually absent except in motile cells of lower plantsWhile in animal cells, centrioles are practically present
In plant cells, lysosomes are very rareWhile lysosomes are always present in animal cells
In plant cells, glyoxysomes may be presentGlyoxysomes are absent in animal cells
Tight junctions and desmosomes are lacking in plant cellsTight junctions and demosomes are present between adjacent animal cells
Plasmodesmata is present in plant cellsPlasmodesmata is usually absent in animal cells
Reserve food is kept in the form in the form of starch in plant cellsReserve food is glycogen in animal cells
Plant cells synthesize all amino acids, vitamins and co-enzymes required by themAnimal cells cannot synthesize all the amino acids, vitamins and co-enzymes required by them
In plant cells, spindles formed during cell divisions in anastral i.e. without asters at opposite polesIn animal cells, spindle formed during cell division is amphiastral i.e. has an ester at each pole
Cytokinesis occurs by cell plate method in plant cellsCytokinesis occurs by construction or furrowing in animal cells
Plant cells will not burst if placed in hypotonic solution due to presence of the cell wallAnimal cells lacks contractile vacuoles, and usually burst if placed in hypertonic solution

 

By | 2015-08-24T14:38:39+00:00 December 26th, 2012|Cell Biology|0 Comments

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