Key Difference : Animal cells doesn’t contains rigid cell walls and the chloroplasts, and also they have smaller vacuoles. While plant cells have a rigid cell wall, have chloroplasts and have a much larger central vacuole.
Cells are smallest unit of life and microscopic by nature, which means we cannot see them with our naked eye. These cells were discovered in 1665 by the Robert Hooke and were named after the small “cells” (or rooms) in a monastery. There are basically two types of cells, eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. The prokaryotic cells are self-sufficient in nature, like bacteria and archaea. While the cells of all of the multi-cellular beings are known as eukaryotic cells, but they have separate structures.
The main differences between a plant and an animal cell is that plant cells contain a rigid cell wall, which the animal cells lacks. This cell wall is made up of cellulose and gives the plant cells rigidity in a proper fixed, rectangular shape. Animal cell lacks this, that why they tend to have irregular and round shaped cells. Animal cells tends to vary largely in their appearance. In plant cell, their rigid cell wall allows high pressure to build inside of them without bursting the cell. This is the reason, plant cells are able to accept huge amount of liquids through osmosis without bursting. Contrary to this, animal cells have only thin membrane restricting access to the cell, so they tends to burst if absorbs too much extra water.
Both of them, animal cells and plant cells have a well-defined nucleus, which contains chromosomes. The nucleus is surrounded and protected by cytoplasm, a gel-like watery liquid, that holds all of the organelles in their place. This cytoplasm in turn is held in by the outer cell membrane.
Here we are listing all the differences between plant cell and animal cells for quick view :
|PLANT CELL||ANIMAL CELL|
|A plant cell is usually larger in size||An animal cell is comparatively smaller in size|
|It is enclosed by rigid cellulose cell wall in addition to the plasma membrane||Animal cell is enclosed by a thin, flexible plasma membrane only|
|Plant cell cannot change its shape||An animal cell can often change its shape|
|Plastids are present here. Plant cells exposed to sunlight contain chloroplast||Plastids are absent in animal cells|
|A fully mature plant cell contains a large central vacuole||An animal cell often possesses many small vacuoles|
|In plant cell, nucleus lies on one side in the peripheral cytoplasm||In animal cell nucleus usually lies in the center|
|Here centrioles are usually absent except in motile cells of lower plants||While in animal cells, centrioles are practically present|
|In plant cells, lysosomes are very rare||While lysosomes are always present in animal cells|
|In plant cells, glyoxysomes may be present||Glyoxysomes are absent in animal cells|
|Tight junctions and desmosomes are lacking in plant cells||Tight junctions and demosomes are present between adjacent animal cells|
|Plasmodesmata is present in plant cells||Plasmodesmata is usually absent in animal cells|
|Reserve food is kept in the form in the form of starch in plant cells||Reserve food is glycogen in animal cells|
|Plant cells synthesize all amino acids, vitamins and co-enzymes required by them||Animal cells cannot synthesize all the amino acids, vitamins and co-enzymes required by them|
|In plant cells, spindles formed during cell divisions in anastral i.e. without asters at opposite poles||In animal cells, spindle formed during cell division is amphiastral i.e. has an ester at each pole|
|Cytokinesis occurs by cell plate method in plant cells||Cytokinesis occurs by construction or furrowing in animal cells|
|Plant cells will not burst if placed in hypotonic solution due to presence of the cell wall||Animal cells lacks contractile vacuoles, and usually burst if placed in hypertonic solution|